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【cmd】IF ELSE 复制(copy)文件问题

cmd中复制文件COPY命令一般都不会有问题,但是如果把COPY放在IF ELSE中可能导致批处理文件无法运行。

测试场景

文件夹结构如下:

test

|—folder1

|—|—a(b).txt

|—folder2

选择是否从folder1文件夹复制a(b).txt文件到folder2文件夹。

测试1

不进行选择交互,直接复制,脚本如下:

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@echo off & setlocal EnableDelayedExpansion
set currentDir=!cd!
DEL /Q !currentDir!\folder2\*.*
copy !currentDir!\folder1\a(b).txt !currentDir!\folder2

保存为test.bat文件后执行结果:

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已复制 1 个文件。
请按任意键继续. . .

copy复制语句似乎没有问题。

测试2

修改以上脚本,添加选择交互:

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@echo off & setlocal EnableDelayedExpansion
set /p yesno=是否复制(0:否,1:是):
set currentDir=!cd!
DEL /Q !currentDir!\folder2\*.*
if !yesno! equ 1 (
copy !currentDir!\folder1\a(b).txt !currentDir!\folder2
)else (
echo 没复制
)
pause

保存为test.bat文件后执行,发现一闪而过,看不到什么报错。

解决

经过多次测试,发现将copy中的路径用双引号(“”)包裹起来就可以了。

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@echo off & setlocal EnableDelayedExpansion
set /p yesno=是否复制(0:否,1:是):
set currentDir=!cd!
DEL /Q !currentDir!\folder2\*.*
if !yesno! equ 1 (
copy "!currentDir!\folder1\a(b).txt" !currentDir!\folder2
)else (
echo 没复制
)
pause

由此可见,应该是路径中某些符号没有转义导致的,目测是文件名中的(),修改脚本,用^()转义:

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@echo off & setlocal EnableDelayedExpansion
set /p yesno=是否复制(0:否,1:是):
set currentDir=!cd!
DEL /Q !currentDir!\folder2\*.*
if !yesno! equ 1 (
copy !currentDir!\folder1\a^(b^).txt !currentDir!\folder2
)else (
echo 没复制
)
pause

运行结果:

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是否复制(0:否,1:是): 1
已复制 1 个文件。
请按任意键继续. . .

总结

虽然测试1中直接执行复制没问题,但是,将同样的语句放入IF ELSE中居然无法执行,还很难定位问题在哪里,所以解决方法是最好把路径放在双引号(“”)里面,就不用担心这个问题了,如果不这样就在IF ELSE中的路径把特殊字符转义。附上CMD中特殊字符转义说明。

Character to be escaped Escape Sequence Remark
% %% May not always be required in doublequoted strings, just try
^ ^^ May not always be required in doublequoted strings, but it won’t hurt
& ^& May not always be required in doublequoted strings, but it won’t hurt
< ^< May not always be required in doublequoted strings, but it won’t hurt
> ^> May not always be required in doublequoted strings, but it won’t hurt
^’ Required only in the FOR /F “subject” (i.e. between the parenthesis), unless backqis used
` ^` Required only in the FOR /F “subject” (i.e. between the parenthesis), if backq is used
, ^, Required only in the FOR /F “subject” (i.e. between the parenthesis), even in doublequoted strings
; ^; Required only in the FOR /F “subject” (i.e. between the parenthesis), even in doublequoted strings
= ^= Required only in the FOR /F “subject” (i.e. between the parenthesis), even in doublequoted strings
( ^( Required only in the FOR /F “subject” (i.e. between the parenthesis), even in doublequoted strings
) ^) Required only in the FOR /F “subject” (i.e. between the parenthesis), even in doublequoted strings
! ^^! Required only when delayed variable expansion is active
“” Required only inside the search pattern of FIND
\ \\ Required only inside the regex pattern of FINDSTR
[ \[ Required only inside the regex pattern of FINDSTR
] \] Required only inside the regex pattern of FINDSTR
\ \\ Required only inside the regex pattern of FINDSTR
. \. Required only inside the regex pattern of FINDSTR
* \* Required only inside the regex pattern of FINDSTR
? \? Required only inside the regex pattern of FINDSTR

参考:http://www.robvanderwoude.com/escapechars.php

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文章目录
  1. 1. 测试场景
  2. 2. 测试1
  3. 3. 测试2
  4. 4. 解决
  5. 5. 总结
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